119Sn Mossbauer spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001263)

synonyms: 119Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy, 119Sn Mossbauer spectroscopy, 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy, 119Sn Mößbauer spectroscopy, 119Sn recoil-free gamma-ray resonance absorption spectroscopy, tin-119 Moessbauer spectroscopy, tin-119 Mößbauer spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the intensity of a gamma-rays beam transmitted through a solid sample containing 119Sn nuclei is detected. [CHMO]

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121Sb Mossbauer spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001191)

synonyms: 121Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy, 121Sb Mossbauer spectroscopy, 121Sb recoil-free gamma-ray resonance absorption spectroscopy, antimony-121 Moessbauer spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the intensity of a gamma-rays beam transmitted through a solid sample containing 121Sb nuclei is detected. [CHMO]

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125Te Mossbauer spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000151)

synonyms: 125Te Moessbauer spectroscopy, 125Te Mossbauer spectroscopy, 125Te recoil-free gamma-ray resonance absorption spectroscopy, tellurium-125 Moessbauer spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the intensity of a gamma-rays beam transmitted through a solid sample containing 125Te nuclei is detected. [CHMO]

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127I Mossbauer spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001724)

synonyms: 127I Moessbauer spectroscopy, 127I Mossbauer spectroscopy, 127I Mössbauer spectroscopy, 127I Mößbauer spectroscopy, 127I recoil-free gamma-ray resonance absorption spectroscopy, iodine-127 Moessbauer spectroscopy, iodine-127 Mößbauer spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the intensity of a gamma-rays beam transmitted through a solid sample containing 127I nuclei is detected. [CHMO]

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129I Mossbauer spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002173)

synonyms: 129I Moessbauer spectroscopy, 129I Mossbauer spectroscopy, 129I recoil-free gamma-ray resonance absorption spectroscopy, iodine-129 Moessbauer spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the intensity of a gamma-rays beam transmitted through a solid sample containing 129I nuclei is detected. [CHMO]

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129Xe Mossbauer spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001021)

synonyms: 129Xe Moessbauer spectrometry, 129Xe Moessbauer spectroscopy, 129Xe Mossbauer spectrometry, 129Xe Mossbauer spectroscopy, 129Xe Mössbauer spectrometry, 129Xe Mössbauer spectroscopy, 129Xe Mößbauer spectrometry, 129Xe Mößbauer spectroscopy, 129Xe recoil-free gamma-ray resonance absorption spectroscopy, xenon-129 Moessbauer spectroscopy, xenon-129 Mößbauer spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the intensity of a gamma-rays beam transmitted through a solid sample containing 129Xe nuclei is detected. [CHMO]

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14N electron spin-echo envelope modulation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001409)

synonyms: 14N ESEEM, 14N electron spin echo envelope modulation, nitrogen-14 ESEEM, nitrogen-14 electron spin echo envelope modulation

A type of pulsed EPR spectroscopy which is used to observe the electron spin echo in 14N nuclei as a function of the time that separates the pulses causing the echo. This technique is a powerful probe of the radial distribution of magnetic nuclear spins in the environment of the electron spins producing the echo. [CHMO]

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151Eu Mossbauer spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001829)

synonyms: 151Eu Moessbauer spectroscopy, 151Eu Mossbauer spectroscopy, 151Eu recoil-free gamma-ray resonance absorption spectroscopy, europium-151 Moessbauer spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the intensity of a gamma-rays beam transmitted through a solid sample containing 151Eu nuclei is detected. [CHMO]

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17O electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002134)

synonyms: 17O ENDOR, 17O ENDOR spectroscopy, oxygen-17 ENDOR, oxygen-17 ENDOR spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where a microwave frequency pulse is used to saturate the electron resonance transitions in the 17O nuclei of a sample, and a radio frequency pulse is used excite a nuclear transition. [CHMO]

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197Au Mossbauer spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001862)

synonyms: 197Au Moessbauer spectroscopy, 197Au Mossbauer spectroscopy, 197Au recoil-free gamma-ray resonance absorption spectroscopy, gold-197 Moessbauer spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the intensity of a gamma-rays beam transmitted through a solid sample containing 197Au nuclei is detected. [CHMO]

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1H continuous-wave nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001745)

synonyms: 1H NMR absorption spectroscopy, 1H c.w. NMR, 1H continuous wave nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 1H cw-NMR

A type of spectroscopy where the energy states of 1H nuclei placed in a static magnetic field are interrogated by inducing transitions between the states via radio frequency irradiation. Spectra are obtained by scanning a range of radio frequencies. [CHMO]

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1H electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001772)

synonyms: 1H ENDOR, 1H ENDOR spectroscopy, hydrogen-1 ENDOR, hydrogen-1 ENDOR spectroscopy, proton ENDOR, proton ENDOR spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where a microwave frequency pulse is used to saturate the electron resonance transitions in the 1H nuclei of a sample, and a radio frequency pulse is used excite a nuclear transition. [CHMO]

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57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001808)

synonyms: 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, 57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, 57Fe Mößbauer spectroscopy, 57Fe recoil-free gamma-ray resonance absorption spectroscopy, iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopy, iron-57 Mößbauer spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the intensity of a gamma-rays beam transmitted through a solid sample containing 57Fe nuclei is detected. [CHMO]

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57Fe electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000981)

synonyms: 57Fe ENDOR, 57Fe ENDOR spectroscopy, iron-57 ENDOR, iron-57 ENDOR spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where a microwave frequency pulse is used to saturate the electron resonance transitions in the 57Fe nuclei of a sample, and a radio frequency pulse is used excite a nuclear transition. [CHMO]

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63Cu pulsed electron spin resonance spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000432)

synonyms: 63Cu EPR, 63Cu ESR, 63Cu pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the response of a 63Cu atom to short (ns) pulses of microwave radiation in a magnetic field is measured. [CHMO]

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65Cu pulsed electron spin resonance spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001516)

synonyms: 65Cu EPR, 65Cu ESR, 65Cu pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the response of a 65Cu atom to short (ns) pulses of microwave radiation in a magnetic field is measured. [CHMO]

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95Mo electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000199)

synonyms: 95Mo ENDOR, 95Mo ENDOR spectroscopy, molybdenum-95 ENDOR, molybdenum-95 ENDOR spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where a microwave frequency pulse is used to saturate the electron resonance transitions in the 95Mo nuclei of a sample, and a radio frequency pulse is used excite a nuclear transition. [CHMO]

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Acheson method

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002428)

synonyms: Acheson technique

A method for growing low-purity polycrystalline SiC. A mixture of silica, carbon, sawdust and NaCl is heated to 2700 deg. C in a furnace, and the temperature gradually decreased. [CHMO]

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Auger electron appearance potential spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002380)

synonyms: AEAPS, Auger electron appearance potential spectrometry, EAAPS, IEMM, electron-excited Auger electron appearance potential spectrometry, electron-excited Auger electron appearance potential spectroscopy, incident energy modulation method spectrometry, incident energy modulation method spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with an electron beam and the energy threshold for excitation is indicated by a sudden increase in secondary electron current. [CHMO]

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Auger electron partial yield spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000670)

synonyms: APYS, Auger electron partial yield spectrometry

A type of spectroscopy where bombardment of a sample with high-energy photons results in the ionization of core electrons and the emission of so-called 'Auger' electrons. Only the Auger electrons emitted at a particular photon energy are detected. [CHMO]

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Auger electron spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001526)

synonyms: AES, AEES, Auger electron emission spectroscopy, Auger electron spectrometry, Auger spectrometry, Auger spectroscopy

Any type of spectroscopy where a high energy photon ionizes a core electron and an electron from a higher energy level descends to take its place, releasing sufficient energy to eject a second so-called 'Auger' electron and the energy of the Auger electron is detected as a function of incident photon energy. [CHMO]

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Auger-photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000887)

synonyms: AEPECS, APECS, Auger electron photoelectron coincidence spectrometry, Auger electron-photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy, Auger-photoelectron electron coincidence spectrometry

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with X-rays resulting in the emission of photoelectrons and 'Auger' electrons which are detected as a function of energy. [CHMO]

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BET analysis

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003761)

A BET analysis is a measuring process for calculating surface area based on the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) theory of multiple adsorption layers. [Allotrope]

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Bonnemann method

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000043)

synonyms: Bonnemann colloidal method, Bonnemann method, Bonnemann's method

A method for producing metal nanoparticles by the reduction of metal salts with tetraalkylammonium hydrotriorganoborates. The resulting colloids are highly active hydrogenation catalysts. [CHMO]

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Bridgeman technique

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000779)

synonyms: Bridgman technique, Bridgman-Stockbarger technique

A method of growing a single crystal 'ingot' or 'boule'. The polycrystalline sample is heated in a container above its melting point and slowly cooled from one end where a seed crystal is located. Single crystal material is then progressively formed along the length of the container. [CHMO]

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Brust method

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000315)

synonyms: Brust nanoparticle synthesis, Brust synthesis

A method for synthesising gold nanoparticles from HAuCl4 in non-aqueous solution (e.g. toluene) using tetraoctylammonium bromide as a phase-transfer catalyst and sodium borohydride to reduce Au(III) to Au(0). [CHMO]

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Burum, Linder, Ernst windowless pulse sequence

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000338)

synonyms: BLEW, BLEW pulse sequence, BLEW sequence, Burum-Linder-Ernst windowless pulse sequence, Burum-Linder-Ernst windowless sequence

A sequence of pulses used in magic angle spinning NMR to remove the effect of homonuclear dipolar couplings. A train/sequence of pulses is used to cyclically manipulate the signal whilst stroboscopic sampling ensures the effects of coupling are unobserved. For the pulse sequence see J. Magn. Reson., (1981), 44, pg 173. [CHMO]

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Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000875)

synonyms: CPMG, CPMG pulse sequence, CPMG sequence, Carr, Purcell,Meiboom,Gill pulse sequence, Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence

A pulse sequence which is applied during nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure spin-spin (T2) relaxation times. For the pulse sequence see Rev. Sci. Inst., (1958), 29, pg 688. [CHMO]

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Cohn process

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001607)

synonyms: Cohn process

A method for separating proteins from plasma by changing the conditions of the plasma by simultaneous cooling and addition of alcohol. This causes precipitation of the proteins, which can then be removed by centrifugation. [CHMO]

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Czochralski process

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001531)

A method of producing large single crystals (of semiconductors or metals) by inserting a small seed crystal into a crucible filled with similar molten material, then slowly pulling the seed up from the melt while rotating it. [CHMO]

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DNA metallisation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001605)

synonyms: DNA metalization

The deposition of a layer of metal on DNA by chemically reducing DNA-complexed metal salts (e.g., Ag, Pd, Pt, and Cu). [CHMO]

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DNA metallization

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001605)

synonyms: DNA metalization

The deposition of a layer of metal on DNA by chemically reducing DNA-complexed metal salts (e.g., Ag, Pd, Pt, and Cu). [CHMO]

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FID truncation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000562)

Truncation of the FID recorded either by insufficient acquisition time or by post acquisition processing. [Allotrope]

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FID zero filling

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002057)

synonyms: z-filling

A recorded RF signal in NMR spectroscopy observed as the perturbed sample magnetisation relaxes back to its bulk magnetisation population state that has been suffixed with a set of data points containing many zeros. [Allotrope]

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Fmoc test

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000034)

synonyms: UV Fmoc test, ultraviolet Fmoc test

A colorimetric test which consists of coupling an Fmoc (9H-fluoren-9-yl-methoxycarbonyl )-protected amino acid and measuring the UV absorbance of the sample after deprotection using 20% piperidine in DMF. [CHMO]

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Forster resonance energy transfer

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001782)

synonyms: Förster resonance energy transfer, Förster resonance energy transfer, FRET, Forster resonance energy transfer, Förster resonant energy transfer

A method for determining the distance between molecules using an energy transfer between two chromophores (a donor and an acceptor) in close proximity (typically <10 nm) via a nonradiative, long-range dipole-dipole coupling mechanism. [CHMO]

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Fourier profilometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002020)

synonyms: FP, FTP, Fourier transform profilometry

A method where the profile of a surface is determined by illuminating the sample with a beam of light which has been split into two paths, one of which is directed at the sample and the other at a reference mirror. When the reflections are recombined a Fourier transform is applied to the phase of the interference pattern which contains information about the contours of the surface. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001062)

synonyms: FT-Raman, Fourier transform Raman spectrometry, FT Raman spectrometry, FT Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform Raman spectrometry, Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy

A type of vibrational spectroscopy where the Raman scattering of light by a sample is detected and the spectrum is subject to a Fourier transform. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001062)

synonyms: FT-Raman, Fourier transform Raman spectrometry, FT Raman spectrometry, FT Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform Raman spectrometry, Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy

Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy is a type of vibrational spectroscopy where the Raman scattering of light by a sample is detected and the spectrum is subject to a Fourier transform. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000324)

synonyms: ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, ATR FTIR spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, FTIR-ATR, Fourier transform attenuated total reflectance infra-red , Fourier transform attenuated total reflectance infra-red spectroscopy, Fourier transform attenuated total reflectance infrared , Fourier transform attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy , Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform attenuated total reflectance infra-red, Fourier transform attenuated total reflectance infrared

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Fourier transform electrochemical-induced impedance spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000023)

synonyms: FT-EIS

A type of spectroscopy where the change in impedance (the resistance of alternating current) of an electrochemical cell is measured. A Fourier transform is then applied to the spectrum. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform far-infrared spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001833)

synonyms: FT-FIR, FT-FIR spectrometry, FT-FIR spectroscopy, FT-far-IR, FT-far-IR spectroscopy, FT/FIR, FTFIR, Fourier transform far infrared spectroscopy, Fourier transform far-infra-red spectrometry, Fourier transform far-infrared spectrometry

A type of spectroscopy where the sample absorbs radiation in the far infrared region (15-1000 µm) and the spectrum obtained is subject to a Fourier transform. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform flame infrared emission spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000901)

synonyms: FT-FIRE, Fourier transform FIRE, Fourier transform flame infra-red emission spectrometry, Fourier transform flame infrared emission spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is heated in a flame and the infrared radiation (0.78-1000 µm) emitted during cooling is detected. The spectrum obtained is subject to a Fourier transform. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001787)

synonyms: FT-IR, FT-IR spectroscopy, FTIR, FTIR spectrometry, FTIR spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is a type of vibrational spectroscopy where the sample absorbs radiation from the infrared region (0.78-1000 µm) and the spectrum obtained is subject to a Fourier transform. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001648)

synonyms: FT-IRES, FTIRES, Fourier transform IRES, Fourier transform infra-red emission spectrometry, Fourier transform infra-red emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared emission spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

IR emission spectroscopy where the spectrum is obtained by a single pulse of (UV) radiation, and is subject to a Fourier transform. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform infrared microscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000504)

synonyms: FT-IR imaging, FT-IR microscopy, FTIR imaging, FTIR microscopy, FTIR microspectroscopy, FTIR spectromicroscopy, FTIR-MSP, Fourier transform infra-red microspectrometry, Fourier transform infra-red microspectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared microspectrometry, Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared microscopy

The collection of spatially resolved infrared spectra of a sample during optical microscopy. The infrared spectra are obtained by single pulse of infrared radiation, and are subject to a Fourier transform. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000188)

synonyms: FT-IR OAS, FT-IR PAS, FT-IR optoacoustic spectrometry, FT-IR optoacoustic spectroscopy, FT-IR photoacoustic spectrometry, FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy, FT/IR OAS, FT/IR PAS, FTIR OAS, FTIR PAS, FTIR-OAS, FTIR-PAS, FTIROAS, FTIRPAS, Fourier transform infra-red photoacoustic spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the sound emitted when a gaseous sample is exposed to an intense infrared laser beam, which is rapidly interrupted by a rotating slotted disk, is measured. The spectrum is then subject to a Fourier transform. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002145)

synonyms: FT-IRAS, FT-IRRAS, Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, RA FT-IR, RA FTIR, RA-FTIR, reflection absorption (RA) FT-IR, reflection absorption Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry, reflection absorption Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, reflection absorption Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reflection-absorption Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

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Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002145)

synonyms: FT-IRAS, FT-IRRAS, Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, RA FT-IR, RA FTIR, RA-FTIR, reflection absorption (RA) FT-IR, reflection absorption Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry, reflection absorption Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, reflection absorption Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reflection-absorption Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the absorption and reflection of low-incident-angle infrared light by the surface molecules of a highly reflective or polished sample is measured. The sample absorbs a single pulse of radiation and the spectrum obtained is subject to a Fourier transform. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001787)

synonyms: FT-IR, FT-IR spectroscopy, FTIR, FTIR spectrometry, FTIR spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy

A type of vibrational spectroscopy where the sample absorbs radiation from the infrared region (0.78-1000 µm) and the spectrum obtained is subject to a Fourier transform. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001787)

synonyms: FT-IR, FT-IR spectroscopy, FTIR, FTIR spectrometry, FTIR spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is a type of vibrational spectroscopy where the sample absorbs radiation from the infrared region (0.78-1000 µm) and the spectrum obtained is subject to a Fourier transform. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform mass spectrometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002534)

Mass spectrometry technique in which m/z values are represented by frequencies of ion motion and mass spectra are generated by Fourier transform mathematical operations from time domain transients produced by image current detection. [IUPAC MS REC]

sources:
  • K. K. Murray, R. K. Boyd, M. N. Eberlin, G. J. Langley, L. Li and Y. Naito, Pure Appl. Chem., 2013, 85, 1515-1609

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Fourier transform mass spectrometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002534)

Mass spectrometry technique in which m/z values are represented by frequencies of ion motion and mass spectra are generated by Fourier transform mathematical operations from time domain transients produced by image current detection. [IUPAC]

sources:
  • K. K. Murray, R. K. Boyd, M. N. Eberlin, G. J. Langley, L. Li and Y. Naito, Pure Appl. Chem., 2013, 85, 1515-1609

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Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002285)

synonyms: FT-MW spectrometry, FT-MW spectroscopy, FTMW spectrometry, FTMW spectroscopy, Fourier transform microwave spectrometry

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is irradiated with a single pulse of radiation in the microwave region (1-1000 mm) and the spectrum is subject to a Fourier transform. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform near infrared absorbance spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001657)

synonyms: FT NIRS, FT-NIRS, FTNIRS, Fourier transform near infra-red absorbance spectrometry, Fourier transform near infra-red absorption spectrometry, Fourier transform near infra-red spectrometry, Fourier transform near infra-red spectroscopy, Fourier transform near infrared absorbance spectrometry, Fourier transform near infrared absorbance spectroscopy, Fourier transform near infrared absorption spectrometry, Fourier transform near infrared absorption spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the sample absorbs a single pulse of radiation from the near infrared region (0.8-2 µm) and the spectrum obtained is subject to a Fourier transform. [CHMO]

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Fourier transform near infrared absorption spectrometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001657)

synonyms: FT NIRS, FT-NIRS, FTNIRS, Fourier transform near infra-red absorbance spectrometry, Fourier transform near infra-red absorption spectrometry, Fourier transform near infra-red spectrometry, Fourier transform near infra-red spectroscopy, Fourier transform near infrared absorbance spectrometry, Fourier transform near infrared absorbance spectroscopy, Fourier transform near infrared absorption spectrometry, Fourier transform near infrared absorption spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the sample absorbs a single pulse of radiation from the near infrared region (0.8-2 µm) and the spectrum obtained is subject to a Fourier transform. [CHMO]

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Fourier transformation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001756)

synonyms: fourier transformation

The Fourier transformation decomposes a function of time (e.g. a signal) into the frequencies that make it up. [Wikipedia]

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Gaussian smoothing

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001182)

synonyms: Weierstrass transform, binomial smoothing, Gaussian blur

Definition pending. [0]

sources:
  • http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/MS_1000784
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaussian_blur

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Gaussian smoothing

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001182)

synonyms: Weierstrass transform, binomial smoothing, Gaussian blur

A Gaussian smoothing is a smoothing by convolving the data with a one-dimensional Gaussian function. [Allotrope]

sources:
  • http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/MS_1000784
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaussian_blur

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HCANNH

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000363)

synonyms: HCANNH experiment

A triple-resonance NMR experiment used to determine the chemical shifts of nuclei in a (isotopically enriched) protein. The chemical shift of the (backbone) amide proton is correlated with the chemical shift of the covalently bound nitrogen and with the alpha-carbon and proton of the same residue. The experiment name describes the path taken by the magnetization during the experiment. [CHMO]

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HCC(CO)NNH

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001011)

synonyms: HCC(CO)NNH experiment

A triple-resonance NMR experiment used to determine the chemical shifts of nuclei in a (isotopically enriched) protein. The chemical shift of the (backbone) amide proton is correlated with the chemical shift of the covalently bound nitrogen and with both the alpha- and beta-carbons and protons of the preceding residue. The experiment name describes the path taken by the magnetization during the experiment. [CHMO]

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HN(CO)CAHA

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002072)

synonyms: HN(CO)CAHA experiment

A triple-resonance NMR experiment used to determine the chemical shifts of nuclei in a (isotopically enriched) protein. The chemical shift of the (backbone) amide proton is correlated with the chemical shift of the covalently bound nitrogen and with the alpha-carbon and proton of the preceding residue. The experiment name describes the path taken by the magnetization during the experiment. [CHMO]

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HNCA

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001751)

synonyms: HNCA experiment

A triple-resonance NMR experiment used in to determine the chemical shifts of nuclei in a (isotopically enriched) protein. The chemical shift of the (backbone) amide proton is correlated with the chemical shift of the covalently bound nitrogen and the alpha carbons of the same and preceding residues. [CHMO]

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HNCAHA

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000417)

synonyms: HNCAHA experiment

A triple-resonance NMR experiment used to determine the chemical shifts of nuclei in a (isotopically enriched) protein. The chemical shift of the (backbone) amide proton is correlated with the chemical shift of the covalently bound nitrogen and the alpha-carbon and proton of the same residue. The experiment name describes the path taken by the magnetization during the experiment. [CHMO]

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HNCO

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000607)

synonyms: HNCO, HNCO experiment

A triple-resonance NMR experiment used in to determine the chemical shifts of nuclei in a (isotopically enriched) protein. The chemical shift of the (backbone) amide proton is correlated with the chemical shift of the covalently bound nitrogen and the carbonyl carbon of the preceding residue. [CHMO]

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HNCOCA

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001575)

synonyms: HN(CO)CA, HN(CO)CA experiment, HNCOCA, HNCOCA experiment

A triple-resonance NMR experiment used to determine the chemical shifts of nuclei in a (isotopically enriched) protein. The chemical shift of the (backbone) amide proton is correlated with the chemical shift of the covalently bound nitrogen and the alpha-carbon of the preceding residue. [CHMO]

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Hadamard-encoded nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000280)

synonyms: Hadamard NMR spectroscopy, Hadamard encoded NMR, Hadamard nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Hadamard-encoded NMR

An NMR experiment in which multiple frequencies in an NMR spectrum are excited simultaneously over a broad frequency range using polychromatic pulses. [CHMO]

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Hadamard-encoded total correlation spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000715)

synonyms: 2D Hadamard encoded TOCSY, Hadamard TOCSY, Hadamard-TOCSY

A type of homonuclear NMR spectroscopy where a second frequency dimension is employed to disperse the signals and reveal correlations between all nuclei of a spin-system. All of the resonances in the spin system are excited by selecting only one line for excitation and the final spectrum consists of a series of 1D sub-spectra, each representing one spin system. [CHMO]

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He+-excited Auger electron spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000179)

synonyms: HAES, He+-excited Auger electron spectrometry

A type of spectroscopy where the bombardment of a sample with He+ ions results in the ionization of core electrons and the emission of so-called 'Auger' electrons, which are detected as a function of incident He+ ion energy. [CHMO]

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J-spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000276)

synonyms: 2D J-resolved spectroscopy , 2D J-spectroscopy, 2DJ spectroscopy, J-RES, J-resolved NMR, J-resolved NMR spectrometry, J-resolved NMR spectroscopy, J-resolved spectrometry, J-resolved spectroscopy, J-resolved spectroscopy NMR spectroscopy, J-spectrometry, JRES, JRES NMR, two-dimensional J-spectroscopy

A type of homonuclear proton-proton NMR spectroscopy where chemical shift and J-coupling information are separated onto different frequency axes. [CHMO]

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Kalousek polarography

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000392)

An electrochemical technique where the ac component of the cell current is measured as a function of time and as a function of the ac potential between the indicator and reference electrodes. The working electrode is a dropping mercury (or other liquid conductor) electrode and unstirred solutions are used. The cell current is sampled on alternate half cycles and the potential is applied as a small amplitude square wave superimposed on a linear sweep. [CHMO]

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Karl-Fischer coulometric titration

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001001)

synonyms: Karl Fischer coulometric titration, Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl-Fischer coulometry, coulometric Karl Fischer titration, coulometric Karl-Fischer titration

Karl-Fischer coulometric titration is a process of determining trace amounts of water in a sample by the titration of sulphur dioxide in water using iodine. In this method the I2 is generated electrochemically from I- and titrated with sulphur dioxide. [CHMO]

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Karl-Fischer coulometric titration

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001001)

synonyms: Karl Fischer coulometric titration, Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl-Fischer coulometry, coulometric Karl Fischer titration, coulometric Karl-Fischer titration

Karl-Fischer coulometric titration is a process of determining trace amounts of water in a sample by the titration of sulfur dioxide in water using iodine. In this method the I2 is generated electrochemically from I- and titrated with sulfur dioxide. [CHMO]

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Karl-Fischer coulometric titration

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001001)

synonyms: Karl Fischer coulometric titration, Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl-Fischer coulometry, coulometric Karl Fischer titration, coulometric Karl-Fischer titration

The process of determining trace amounts of water in a sample by the titration of sulphur dioxide in water using iodine. In this method the I2 is generated electrochemically from I- and titrated with sulphur dioxide. [CHMO]

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Karl-Fischer titration

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000441)

synonyms: Karl Fischer titration

Karl-Fischer titration is a process of determining trace amounts of water in a sample by the titration of sulfur dioxide in water using iodine. [CHMO]

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Karl-Fischer titration

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000441)

synonyms: Karl Fischer titration

The process of determining trace amounts of water in a sample by the titration of sulfur dioxide in water using iodine. [CHMO]

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Karl-Fischer volumetric titration

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000119)

synonyms: Karl Fischer volumetric titration, volumetric Karl Fischer titration, volumetric Karl-Fischer titration

Karl-Fischer volumetric titration is a process of determining trace amounts of water in a sample by the titration of sulphur dioxide in water using iodine. In this method the titrant is added directly to the sample using a burette. [CHMO]

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Karl-Fischer volumetric titration

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000119)

synonyms: Karl Fischer volumetric titration, volumetric Karl Fischer titration, volumetric Karl-Fischer titration

Karl-Fischer volumetric titration is a process of determining trace amounts of water in a sample by the titration of sulfur dioxide in water using iodine. In this method the titrant is added directly to the sample using a burette. [CHMO]

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Karl-Fischer volumetric titration

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000119)

synonyms: Karl Fischer volumetric titration, volumetric Karl Fischer titration, volumetric Karl-Fischer titration

The process of determining trace amounts of water in a sample by the titration of sulphur dioxide in water using iodine. In this method the titrant is added directly to the sample using a burette. [CHMO]

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Kelvin force spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000380)

synonyms: KFS

A type of spectroscopy where an atomic force microscope is used to measure the force experienced by a sample. A probe, which is made of a material with a known work function (commonly tungsten or platinum), is arranged close to the sample surface as a parallel-plate capacitor with a small spacing. The probe is vibrated, causing a change in the capacitance between the electrodes. A voltage is then applied between the probe and sample until the electric field between them vanishes. The force gradient is proportional to the change in amplitude of the vibration. The distance between the probe and sample is kept constant during the measurement using a feedback loop. [CHMO]

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Kelvin probe force microscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000180)

synonyms: KFM, KPFM, Kelvin force microscopy, Kelvin probe microscopy, SSPM, scanning surface potential microscopy

A type of microscopy which uses a sharp spike (known as a 'tip') mounted on the end of a cantilever to scan the surface of the specimen. The conducting tip forms a capacitor with the surface, over which it is scanned laterally at a constant separation, in order to map the change in work function of the surface. A feedback loop is used to maintain a fixed relationship between the tip and surface during scanning. [CHMO]

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Kelvin probe method

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001733)

synonyms: Kelvin method, vibrating capacitor method

A measurement method for determining the contact potential difference or difference in work functions between the sample and a reference electrode. In this method, the probe, which is made ofna material with a known work function (commonly tungsten or platinum), is arranged close to the sample surface as a parallel-plate capacitor with a small spacing. The probe is vibrated, causing a change in the capacitance between the electrodes, resulting in a small ac current. The work function difference is measured by applying an opposing external bias voltage such that the ac current is zero. [CHMO]

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Kerr effect spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002109)

synonyms: OKE spectroscopy, OKES, optical Kerr effect spectroscopy, optical Kerr-effect spectroscopy, optical-Kerr-effect (OKE) spectroscopy, optical-Kerr-effect spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the refractive index change of the sample induced by two polarized laser beams (pump and probe) under the influence of an electric field (the 'optical Kerr effect') is measured. [CHMO]

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Kerr-gated resonance Raman spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000704)

synonyms: Kerr-gated Raman spectrometry

A type of spectroscopy where the Raman scattering of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or near ultraviolet range, by a sample is detected. The energy of the incoming laser is adjusted such that it or the scattered light coincides with an electronic transition within the sample, and the laser is combined with a Kerr gate fluorescence rejection system. [CHMO]

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Kugelrohr distillation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000153)

A method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. As the sample mixture to be purified is heated, its vapours rise a short distance into a vertical condenser (called a 'Kugelrohr') where they are cooled by water. This technique is used for small amounts of samples with high boiling points (usually >300 deg. C) under greatly reduced pressure. [CHMO]

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LC-MS reaction monitoring data processing

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003713)

synonyms: LC/MS reaction monitoring data processing

LC-MS reaction monitoring data processing is a data processing for analyzing samples using MRM technologies. [Allotrope]

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LC-UV system process

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003679)

A process that is executed by an LC-UV system. [Allotrope]

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LOWESS smoothing

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000052)

synonyms: LOWESS smoothing

Definition pending. [0]

sources:
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_regression

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Langmuir-Blodgett assembly

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001725)

synonyms: Langmuir-Blodgett assembly, Langmuir-Blodgett technique

A method of depositing crystalline films one molecular layer at a time, by dipping the substrate into water containing a polymer that forms a single layer of molecular chains on the surface. This layer is then transferred from the water to the substrate. [CHMO]

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Laplace deep-level transient spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000314)

synonyms: L-DLTS, LDLTS, LTDLTS, Laplace DLTS, Laplace deep level transient spectroscopy, Laplace transform DLTS, Laplace transform deep level transient spectroscopy, Laplace transform deep-level transient spectroscopy

A method for determining the extent of intrinsic and process-induced defects in the crystalline layers within semiconductor devices. Defects arising from impurities, grain boundaries, interfaces, etc. result in the creation of traps that capture free electrons and holes. By monitoring the average capacitance produced by applying a voltage pulse to the semiconductor junction at a fixed temperatures, spectra are generated which exhibit a peak for each 'deep level' (each energy level near the center of the band gap). The height of the peak is proportional to the defect density and the emission rate is characteristic for each type of defect. [CHMO]

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Lely method

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000205)

synonyms: Lely technique

A method for crystal growth where polycrystalline SiC lumps are carefully packed between two concentric graphite tubes. The inner tube is then withdrawn leaving a porous SiC layer inside the outer tube. The outer tube is then heated (~2500 deg. C) in Ar, causing the SiC powder to sublime and nucleate on a cooler surface. [CHMO]

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Malcolm Levitt pulse sequence

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000311)

synonyms: MLEV, MLEV pulse sequence, MLEV sequence

A sequence of composite pulses designed to remove signal splitting due to heteronuclear J-couplings in multinuclear liquid NMR experiments. Also used to allow transfer of magnetization between nuclei (by making the spins precess with at the same chemical shift and thus enjoy strong coupling - isotropic mixing). For the pulse sequence see J. Magn. Reson., (1981), 43, pg 502. [CHMO]

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Mansfield, Rhim, Elleman, Vaughn pulse sequence

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000478)

synonyms: MREV, MREV pulse sequence, MREV sequence, Mansfield Rhim Elleman Vaughn sequence, Mansfield, Rhim, Elleman, Vaughn sequence, Mansfield-Rhim-Elleman-Vaughn pulse sequence, Mansfield-Rhim-Elleman-Vaughn sequence

A pulse sequence used in magic angle spinning NMR to remove the effects of homonuclear dipolar coupling. For the pulse sequence see J. Chem. Phys., (1973), 59, pg 3740. [CHMO]

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Marking is changing some quality of a material so that it concretizes a symbol.

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003639)

synonyms: labeling

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McLafferty rearrangement

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001413)

Rearrangement reaction involving transfer of a hydrogen atom via a six-member transition state to the formal radical/charge site from a carbon atom four atoms distant from the charge/radical site (the γ-carbon); subsequent rearrangement of electron density can lead to expulsion of an olefin molecule. [IUPAC MS REC]

sources:
  • K. K. Murray, R. K. Boyd, M. N. Eberlin, G. J. Langley, L. Li and Y. Naito, Pure Appl. Chem., 2013, 85, 1515-1609
  • F. W. McLafferty (1959). "Mass Spectrometric Analysis. Molecular Rearrangements". Anal. Chem. 31 (1): 82–87.

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McLafferty rearrangement

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001413)

Rearrangement reaction involving transfer of a hydrogen atom via a six-member transition state to the formal radical/charge site from a carbon atom four atoms distant from the charge/radical site (the γ-carbon); subsequent rearrangement of electron density can lead to expulsion of an olefin molecule. [IUPAC]

sources:
  • K. K. Murray, R. K. Boyd, M. N. Eberlin, G. J. Langley, L. Li and Y. Naito, Pure Appl. Chem., 2013, 85, 1515-1609
  • F. W. McLafferty (1959). "Mass Spectrometric Analysis. Molecular Rearrangements". Anal. Chem. 31 (1): 82–87.

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defined in:

Mossbauer spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000317)

synonyms: Moessbauer spectroscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Mößbauer spectroscopy, recoil-free gamma-ray resonance absorption spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the intensity of a gamma-rays beam transmitted through a solid sample is detected. [CHMO]

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Osteryoung square-wave voltammetry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000389)

synonyms: OSWV, Osteryoung square wave voltammetry

An electrochemical technique where the cell current is measured as a function of time and as a function of the potential between the indicator and reference electrodes. The potential is varied as a square wave and there is one square wave cycle per staircase step. [CHMO]

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Ostwald ripening

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000696)

synonyms: Ostwald-ripening

The growth of larger crystals from those of smaller size, which have a higher solubility that the larger ones. [CHMO]

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Pickering emulsion method

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000426)

synonyms: Pickering emulsification, Pickering emulsion process, Pickering emulsion processing

A method for dispersing two or more immiscible liquid by shaking, stirring or homogenising the mixture. The emulsion is stablised by adding finely divided insoluble solid particles (e.g. latex or silica). [CHMO]

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R-type recoupling proton detected separated local field spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001222)

synonyms: PDLF with R-type recoupling, R-PDLF, R-type recoupling proton detected local field spectroscopy, proton-deteced separated local field spectroscopy with R-type recoupling

A magic-angle spinning NMR experiment to measure dipolar couplings. Dipolar couplings are reintroduced by synchronising RF pulses with the rotation of the rotor. Spectral simplification occurs via the proton detected separated local field protocol where 1H-1H interactions are decoupled and proton magnetization is passed through 13C nuclei present at natural abundance. [CHMO]

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Raman circular dichroism spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001542)

synonyms: RCD, Raman CD, Raman circular dichroism

The observation of circular dichroism (the differential absorption of left- and right-handed circularly polarized light) in the Raman spectra of chiral molecules. [CHMO]

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Raman microscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001975)

synonyms: laser Raman spectroscopy, LRMA, MRS, RCIS, Raman chemical imaging spectrometry, Raman chemical imaging spectroscopy, Raman imaging, Raman mapping, Raman micro spectrometry, Raman micro spectroscopy, Raman microprobe spectroscopy, Raman microspectrometry, Raman microspectroscopy, Raman spectral imaging, laser Raman microanalysis, micro Raman spectrometry, micro Raman spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectrometry, micro-Raman spectroscopy

The collection of spatially resolved Raman spectra of a sample during optical microscopy. [CHMO]

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Raman spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000047)

synonyms: Raman scattering spectrometry, Raman scattering spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, laser Raman spectroscopy

Any type of vibrational spectroscopy where the Raman scattering of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or near ultraviolet range by a sample is detected. [CHMO]

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Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002424)

synonyms: RIKES, Raman-induced Kerr-effect spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where two polarized laser beams (pump and probe) with a frequency difference close to a Raman-mode frequency in the sample induce a refractive index change in the sample. By scanning the frequency difference of the two beams and recording simultaneously the polarization change of the probe beam, the Raman spectral structure of the sample can be obtained. [CHMO]

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Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001229)

synonyms: Rayleigh scattering method, elastic light scattering, laser Rayleigh scattering, laser Rayleigh scattering spectrometry, laser Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy, laser-Rayleigh scattering

A method for determining structure by measuring the change in direction or energy of Rayleigh scattered visible light. [CHMO]

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Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000002)

synonyms: HE IS, HE ISS, HE-IS, HE-ISS, HEIS, HEISS, RBS, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Rutherford scattering spectrometry, Rutherford scattering spectroscopy, backscattering spectroscopy, heavy ion scattering spectrometry, heavy ion scattering spectroscopy, heavy-ion scattering spectrometry, heavy-ion scattering spectroscopy, high-energy ion scattering spectrometry, high-energy ion scattering spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with He+ or H+ ions (500-1500 eV) and the energies and positions of any backscattered ions are detected. [CHMO]

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Savitzky-Golay smoothing

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002396)

Definition pending. [0]

sources:
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savitzky%E2%80%93Golay_filter

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Savitzky-Golay smoothing

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002396)

Savitzky-Golay smoothing is a smoothing by convolving the data by fitting successive sub-sets of adjacent data points with a low-degree polynomial by the method of linear least squares. [Allotrope]

sources:
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savitzky%E2%80%93Golay_filter

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Soxhlet extraction

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000727)

The process of transferring the partially soluble components of a solid to the liquid phase using a Soxhlet extractor. The solid is placed in a filter paper thimble which is then placed into the main chamber of the Soxhlet extractor. The solvent (heated to reflux) travels into the main chamber and the partially soluble components are slowly tranferred to the solvent. [CHMO]

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UV-assisted capillary force lithography

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001508)

synonyms: UV-assisted CFL

A process for shaping pliable thermoplastic polymers. An elastomeric (polyurethane acrylate) mould is placed on a UV-curable polymer that has been spin- or drop-coated onto a substrate and partially cured using UV light (200-400 nm). The system is then further exposed to UV light and capillary force allows the polymer melt to fill up the void space between the polymer and the mould. After cooling to ambient temperature, the mould is removed, generating the negative replica of the mould pattern. [CHMO]

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Verneuil process

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001668)

synonyms: flame fusion

A method for preparing synthetic gemstones. A finely powdered sample is melted in an hydrogen-oxygen flame (2000 deg. C) and crystallising the melted droplets on a boule (a single crystal). [CHMO]

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Waugh, Huber, Haeberlin pulse sequence

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002181)

synonyms: WAHUHA, WAHUHA pulse sequence, WAHUHA sequence, Waugh Huber Haeberlin sequence, Waugh, Huber, Haeberlin pulse sequence, Waugh-Huber-Haeberlin pulse sequence, Waugh-Huber-Haeberlin sequence

A pulse sequence used in magic angle spinning NMR to remove the effects of homonuclear dipolar coupling. For the pulse sequence see Phys. Rev. Lett., (1968), 20, pg 180. [CHMO]

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defined in:

X half filter

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000348)

synonyms: X half-filter

A technique used in 2D NMR of isotopically enriched samples (usually 13C/15N) to remove signals of protons which are not bound to a particular isotope from one of the two domains of the experiment. For the technique see J. Magn. Reson., (1986), 70, pg 500. [CHMO]

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defined in:

X-band electron spin resonance spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000737)

synonyms: X-band EPR spectroscopy, X-band ESR spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the response of an atom with an unpaired electron to short (ns) pulses of microwave radiation in a magnetic field is measured. The microwave radiation used has an approximate frequency of 9 GHz, known as the 'X-band'. [CHMO]

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defined in:

X-filter

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002375)

synonyms: heteronuclear nXQF element

A technique used in NMR of isotopically enriched samples (usually 13C/15N) to select for, or to remove signals of protons bound to a particular isotope. [CHMO]

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X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002362)

synonyms: X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements, X-ray absorption fine structure spectrometry, XAFS

A type of X-ray absorption spectroscopy where changes in the X-ray absorption coefficient around the absorption edge (the part of the spectrum where the incident X-ray energy matches the binding energy of an electron) are measured as a function of incident X-ray energy. [CHMO]

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X-ray absorption spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000097)

synonyms: X-ray absorption spectrometry, XAS

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with X-rays and the X-ray absorption coefficient of the sample is measured. When the incident X-ray energy matches the binding energy of an electron in an atom there is a decrease in the intensity of transmitted X-rays resulting in an absorption edge. [CHMO]

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X-ray appearance potential spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000042)

synonyms: EEXAPS, EXAPS, SXAPS, X-ray appearance potential spectrometry, XAPS, electron-excited X-ray appearance potential spectrometry, electron-excited X-ray appearance potential spectroscopy, soft X-ray appearance potential spectrometry, soft X-ray appearance potential spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with an electron beam and the energy threshold for excitation is indicated by the sudden appearance of soft X-ray fluorescence. [CHMO]

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X-ray bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000794)

synonyms: X-ray bremsstrahlung spectrometry, XBIS, ultraviolet bremsstrahlung spectrometry, ultraviolet bremsstrahlung spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with electrons which decay in unoccupied states emitting bremsstrahlung radiation in the X-ray region. [CHMO]

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X-ray diffraction

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000487)

synonyms: X-Ray crystallographic analysis, X-ray analysis, X-ray crystallography, X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray diffractometry, X-ray structure determination, XRD

A method for determining structure by directing a beam of X-rays at the sample and detecting the positions and intensities of the diffracted X-rays as a pattern of spots on a photographic plate. [CHMO]

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X-ray emission spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000291)

synonyms: X-ray emission spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, XES, XRES, XRF, XRF spectrometry, XRF spectroscopy

Any type of X-ray spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with X-rays or particles and the energies and intensities of the X-rays emitted due to core-to-core transitions (known as 'X-ray fluorescence') are detected. [CHMO]

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X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002460)

synonyms: X-ray excited Auger electron spectrometry, X-ray induced Auger electron spectrometry, X-ray induced Auger electron spectroscopy, XAES, XEAES, XIAES

A type of spectroscopy where X-ray bombardment of a sample results in the ionization of core electrons and the emission of so-called 'Auger' electrons, which are detected as a function of incident X-ray energy. [CHMO]

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X-ray excited electron appearance potential spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001828)

synonyms: X-ray excited electron appearance potential spectrometry, XEAPS

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with an electron beam and the energy threshold for excitation is indicated by the sudden appearance of peaks in the photoelectron spectrum. [CHMO]

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X-ray fluorescence microscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001452)

synonyms: X-ray fluorescence imaging, XFM, XRF imaging, x-ray fluorescence microprobe (XFM) analysis

An imaging technique where a beam of X-rays is directed at the specimen and the intensities of the X-rays emitted due to core-to-core transitions (known as 'X-ray fluorescence') are detected as a function of wavelength and position. As these energies are element-specific, X-ray fluorescence microscopy can be used to determine spatially-resolved elemental composition. [CHMO]

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X-ray lithography

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000141)

synonyms: PXL, XL, proximity X-ray lithography

A synthesis technique which uses X-rays to transfer a pattern to a substrate. The substrate is coated with a film (or 'resist) and a beam of X-rays is scanned across a patterned mask. The mask consists of an X-ray absorber (e.g. Au) on a membrane that is transparent to X-rays (e.g. SiC). The X-rays induce chemical reactions in the resist and the desired pattern is obtained by selectively removing either exposed or non-exposed regions of the resist ('developing'). [CHMO]

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X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000881)

synonyms: X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectrometry, XMCD, XMCD spectrometry, XMCD spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy based on the differential absorption of left- and right-handed circularly polarised X-ray radiation in the presence of a magnetic field. [CHMO]

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X-ray microemission spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000913)

synonyms: X-ray microemission, X-ray microemission spectrometry, X-ray microemission spectroscopy, X-ray microfluorescence, X-ray microfluorescence spectrometry, X-ray microfluorescence spectroscopy, XRME, XRME spectrometry, XRME spectroscopy, XRMF, XRMF spectrometry, XRMF spectroscopy

A type of X-ray spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with a finely focused (<10 m diameter) X-ray beam and the energies and intensities of the X-rays emitted due to core-to-core transitions (known as 'X-ray fluorescence') are detected. [CHMO]

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X-ray microprobe spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000941)

synonyms: X-ray micro-probe spectrometry, X-ray microanalysis, X-ray microprobe spectrometry, X-ray microprobe spectroscopy, XMPS

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with a finely focused X-ray beam (<10 m diameter) and the X-ray absorption coefficient of the sample is measured. [CHMO]

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X-ray microscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002343)

synonyms: XM, XRM

An imaging technique where soft X-rays (100-1000 eV) are directed at the specimen, and the difference in absorption of the X-rays by different elements (mainly O and C) produces an image. [CHMO]

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X-ray photoelectron diffraction

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000867)

synonyms: XPD, XPED, XPhD

A method for determining structure during X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-rays are directed at a sample and diffraction patterns resulting from the emission of electrons are recorded. [CHMO]

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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000491)

synonyms: ESCA, PESIS, X-ray photoelectron emission spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron scattering (XPS) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron scattering spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, XPES, XPS, electron spectrometry for chemical analysis, electron spectrometry for chemical applications, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, electron spectroscopy for chemical applications, photoelectron spectroscopy of the inner shell

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is illuminated with X-rays causing ionization and the emission of photoelectrons, the energies of which are measured. [CHMO]

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X-ray photoemission electron microscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000996)

synonyms: X-ray excited PEEM, X-ray photoelectron microscopy, XPEEM

A type of electron microscopy where the distribution of electrons emitted by a specimen sample following excitation with an X-ray source is used to produce an image. [CHMO]

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X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001514)

synonyms: X-Ray photon correlation spectroscopy, XPCS

A method for determining the size distribution of a sample of small particles in solution by bombarding the sample with coherent X-rays and measuring the time-dependent fluctuations in the intensity of the scattered X-rays caused by Brownian motion. [CHMO]

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X-ray reflection spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001101)

synonyms: X-ray reflection spectrometry, X-ray reflectivity spectrometry, X-ray reflectivity spectroscopy

Any type of spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with X-rays and the energies of reflected X-rays are measured. [CHMO]

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X-ray reflectometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001673)

synonyms: X-ray reflectivity, XRR

A method for determining structure by directing a beam of X-rays at an extremely flat surface and measuring the intensity of the reflected X-rays as a function of angle. X-ray reflectometry is used to determine the structure of thin films. [CHMO]

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X-ray scattering

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000111)

synonyms: XRS, XS

A method for determining structure by measuring the change in direction or energy of X-rays scattered by a sample. [CHMO]

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X-ray spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001156)

synonyms: X-ray spectrometry

Any type of spectroscopy where the absorption or emission of X-rays is detected. [CHMO]

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X-ray-ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000847)

synonyms: XU photoelectron spectrometry, XU photoelectron spectroscopy, XUPES, XUPS, XUV photoelectron spectrometry, XUV photoelectron spectroscopy, XUVPES, XUVPS

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is illuminated with radiation in the range Xray-ultraviolet, which causes ionization and the emission of photoelectrons, the energies of which are measured. [CHMO]

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ZZ-filter

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002100)

synonyms: ZZ filter

A technique used in NMR experiments to remove unwanted signals from the spectrum by destroying the magnetization giving rise to these signals using a pulsed filed gradient whilst the magnetization of interest is maintained in a state which is unaffected by the pulsed field gradient (ZZ-state). [CHMO]

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abberration-corrected high-angular annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002258)

synonyms: AC-HAADF-STEM, abberration corrected high angular annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy, abberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy

A type of microscopy where a finely focused (<10 nm diameter) electron beam with an acceleration voltage 50-150 kV is scanned across an electron-transparent specimen under vacuum. The beam of electrons is scattered or diffracted at high angles before reaching the specimen, and the image results from a weakening of the beam by its interaction with the sample. An annular aperture is used to select electrons that have passed through given symmetric zones within the objective lens of the microscope. The electron beam is focused using a set of magnetic lenses which removes spherical aberration (an effect where the electron beam is deflected too strongly, resulting in a blurred image). [CHMO]

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aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000697)

synonyms: aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy, aberration-corrected HRTEM

A type of microscopy where an electron-transparent specimen is bombarded with a finely focused (<10 nm diameter) electron beam with an acceleration voltage 50-150 kV under vacuum and the phase contrast between transmitted electron waves is used to produce an image. The beam is focused using a set of magnetic lenses which removes spherical aberration (an effect where the electron beam is deflected too strongly, resulting in a blurred image). [CHMO]

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aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001006)

synonyms: Cs-corrected TEM, aberration-corrected TEM, spherical-aberration-corrected TEM, spherical-aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy

A type of microscopy where a finely focused (<10 nm diameter) electron beam with an acceleration voltage 50-150 kV is scanned across an electron-transparent specimen under vacuum and the intensities of the transmitted electrons are measured. The electron beam is focused using a set of magnetic lenses which removes spherical aberration (an effect where the electron beam is deflected too strongly, described by the spherical aberration coefficient 'Cs', which results in a blurred image). [CHMO]

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abort command deprecated

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002615)

Definition pending. [0]

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defined in:

abort command

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002615)

Definition pending. [0]

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defined in:

aborted state

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003670)

synonyms: aborted, is aborted

An aborted state is a state during which a planned process has run to completion in an abnormal way and the device or service is waiting for a reset that cause the state to change to an idle state. [Allotrope]

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absolute activation analysis

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001674)

A kind of activation analysis in which the elemental concentrations in the material are calculated from known nuclear constants, irradiation and measurement parameters, rather than by comparing with known standards. [CHMO]

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absorption detected magnetic resonance

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000798)

synonyms: ADMR

A double resonance technique in which transitions between spin sublevels are detected by light absorption. Usually these are sublevels of a triplet and the transitions are induced by microwaves. [CHMO]

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absorption titration

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001501)

synonyms: absorbance titration, absorption spectral titration

The process of determining the quantity of a sample by adding measured increments of a titrant until the end-point, at which essentially all of the sample has reacted, is reached. The titration is followed by measuring the absorbance of radiation by the sample. [CHMO]

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acceleration mass spectrometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001305)

synonyms: AMS, accelerator MS, accelerator mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectroscopy

Mass spectrometry technique in which atoms and molecules from a sample are ionized, accelerated to MeV energies and separated according to their momentum, charge, and energy, allowing high discrimination for measurement of isotope abundances. [IUPAC MS REC]

sources:
  • K. K. Murray, R. K. Boyd, M. N. Eberlin, G. J. Langley, L. Li and Y. Naito, Pure Appl. Chem., 2013, 85, 1515-1609
  • Y.-F. Liu, Z.-Y. Guo, X.-Q. Liu, T. Qu, J.-L. Xie. Pure Appl. Chem. 66, 305 (1994).

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acceleration mass spectrometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001305)

synonyms: AMS, accelerator MS, accelerator mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectroscopy

Mass spectrometry technique in which atoms and molecules from a sample are ionized, accelerated to MeV energies and separated according to their momentum, charge, and energy, allowing high discrimination for measurement of isotope abundances. [IUPAC]

sources:
  • K. K. Murray, R. K. Boyd, M. N. Eberlin, G. J. Langley, L. Li and Y. Naito, Pure Appl. Chem., 2013, 85, 1515-1609
  • Y.-F. Liu, Z.-Y. Guo, X.-Q. Liu, T. Qu, J.-L. Xie. Pure Appl. Chem. 66, 305 (1994).

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defined in:

accomplishment

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003371)

A non-cumulative process (event) that is non-atomic. [DOLCE]

sources:
  • http://www.loa.istc.cnr.it/old/Papers/D18.pdf

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accordion spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000001)

A dimensionality reduction technique used in multidimensional NMR experiments. A nD NMR experiment is represented in n-1 dimensions by concerted, simultaneous interrogation of two spectral dimensions. [CHMO]

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achievement

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003370)

A process boundary based on some physical characteristics at the start or end of some process changing these characteristics. [Allotrope]

sources:
  • http://www.loa.istc.cnr.it/old/Papers/D18.pdf

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acid digestion

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001767)

synonyms: acid-digestion

The decomposition of a sample in strong acids such as nitric, sulfuric or perchloric acid in order to obtain the sample in liquid form. [CHMO]

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acid-base titration

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001510)

synonyms: acid/base titration, acid-base titration

Acid-base titration is the process of determining the quantity of a sample (an acid or base) by adding measured increments of a titrant (a base or acid) until the endpoint, at which essentially all of the sample has reacted, is reached. [CHMO]

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acid-base titration

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001510)

synonyms: acid/base titration, acid-base titration

The process of determining the quantity of a sample (an acid or base) by adding measured increments of a titrant (a base or acid) until the endpoint, at which essentially all of the sample has reacted, is reached. [CHMO]

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defined in:

acidimetric titration

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001052)

synonyms: acidimetry

The process of determining the quantity of a sample (a base) by adding measured increments of a titrant (an acid) until the endpoint, at which essentially all of the sample has reacted, is reached. [CHMO]

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acoustic droplet dispensing

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000420)

synonyms: acoustic drop dispensing

The dropwise release of a liquid using a focused acoustic beam to eject a controlled droplet from an open pool of liquid. When the acoustic beam strikes the liquid surface, the pressure causes the fluid to rise up and a droplet breaks off. [CHMO]

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acoustic emission spectrometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001258)

synonyms: acoustic emission spectroscopy

A type of spectrometry where the noise generated by the movement of bubbles or particles is detected. [CHMO]

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activation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000217)

Any process that involves preparing or exciting a material for a subsequent reaction. [OSTHUS, CHMO]

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activation analysis

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000688)

A kind of elemental or isotopic analysis based on the measurement of characteristic radiation from nuclides formed directly or indirectly by activation of the test portion. [CHMO]

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activity

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003620)

An activity is a process that is cumulative but not homomeric. [Allotrope, DOLCE]

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activity

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003620)

An activity is a process that is cumulative but not homeomeric. [Allotrope, DOLCE]

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actuating

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003360)

synonyms: activating, starting, switching on, turning on

Actuating is the process of commencing the flow of energy, signal, or material in response to an imported control signal. [NIST]

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adding (material)

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003743)

synonyms: addition, adding, addition (material), material addition

Adding is loading material into a container where it is combined with existing material. [Allotrope]

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addition rate process profile

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003741)

synonyms: addition rate profile

An addition rate process profile is a rate process profile that is an occurent part of an material addition process. [Allotrope]

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addition rate process profile

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003741)

synonyms: addition rate profile

An addition rate process profile is a rate process profile that is an occurrent part of an material addition process. [Allotrope]

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defined in:

adiabatic ionisation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000714)

Removal of an electron from an atom, radical, or molecule in its lowest energy state, thus producing an ion in its lowest energy state. [IUPAC MS REC]

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defined in:

adiabatic ionisation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000714)

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defined in:

adiabatic ionization

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000714)

Removal of an electron from an atom, radical, or molecule in its lowest energy state, thus producing an ion in its lowest energy state. [IUPAC MS REC]

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defined in:

adiabatic scanning calorimetry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001553)

synonyms: ASC

The measurement of thermodynamic parameters (e.g. enthalpy) during a chemical or biochemical reaction by the known variation (step-wise or linear) of the temperature, whilst the pressure is kept constant. Scanning rates on the order of a few mK min-1 are used and a constant power is continuously applied to (or extracted from) the sample. [CHMO]

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adjusting

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003703)

synonyms: adjustment

Adjusting is a process of slightly changing something with the purpose to achieve an agreement with a set of specifications. [Allotrope]

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adjusting

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000485)

synonyms: adjustment

Definition pending. [0]

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defined in:

adjusting

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000485)

synonyms: adjustment

Adjusting is a changing by altering or moving slightly. [Allotrope]

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defined in:

adsorption chromatography

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001023)

Chromatography in which separation is based mainly on differences between the adsorption affinities of the sample components for the surface of an active solid. [CHMO]

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defined in:

adsorptive stripping voltammetry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001984)

synonyms: AdSV, adsorptive-stripping voltammetry

An electrochemical technique where the analyte of interest is first adsorbed onto the working electrode before being removed or 'stripped'. During removal the cell current is measured as a function of time and as a function of the potential between the indicator and reference electrodes. [CHMO]

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advanced silicon etching

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001921)

synonyms: ASE, advanced silicon etch

The process of creating deep holes and trenches in a silicon surface using short pulses of a plasma (a partially ionized gas - usually SF6 - containing free electrons and radicals) alternating with the deposition of a chemically inert passivation layer (e.g. C4F8). [CHMO]

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defined in:

aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001576)

synonyms: AACVD, aerosol assisted CVD, aerosol-assisted CVD, aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition, aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition

A synthesis method where the substrate is exposed to one or more involatile precursors, suspended in a liquid-gas aerosol (generated ultrasonically), which react or decompose on the surface to produce a deposit. [CHMO]

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defined in:

aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001576)

synonyms: AACVD, aerosol assisted CVD, aerosol-assisted CVD, aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition, aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition

A synthesis method where the substrate is exposed to one or more involatile precursors, suspended in a liquid-gas aerosol (generated ultrasonically), which react or decompose on the surface to produce a deposit. [CHMO]

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aerosol jet deposition

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002040)

synonyms: AJD, aerosol JD

A synthesis method where an aerosol containing precursors is projected onto a surface, resulting in a deposit. [CHMO]

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defined in:

aerosol method

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001506)

synonyms: aerosol process, aerosol processing

A method for the synthesis of solid particles from an aerosol. The desired solid particles are suspended in a liquid, which is heated to 275-330 deg. C under pressure and passed through an orifice so that an aerosol forms. The particles in the aerosol are polymerised by partial evaporation of the solvent. [CHMO]

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defined in:

aerosol solvent extraction system

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000490)

synonyms: ASES

A technique where a solid sample is dissolved in a common (organic or inorganic) solvent, mixed with a supercritical fluid and sprayed into an autoclave. This leads to the reduction in solubility of the solid and precipitation. [CHMO]

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defined in:

affinity chromatography

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001004)

synonyms: affinity purification, bioaffinity chromatography

A method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction such as that between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, or receptor and ligand. [Allotrope]

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defined in:

affinity electrophoresis

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002364)

An electrophoresis method where the separation medium has specific interactions with the analytes. [CHMO]

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defined in:

affinity precipitation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000898)

The selective sedimentation of a solid material (a 'precipitate') from a liquid sample containing a ligand and a target protein. The precipitate evolves after the application of a suitable stimulus (e.g. Ca2+ or Ba2+). [CHMO]

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defined in:

agarose gel electrophoresis

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000643)

A separation method where colloidal particles move at different speeds according to their electrophoretic mobilities in a separation medium consisting of agarose gel, across which an electric field is applied. [CHMO]

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defined in:

ageing

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002367)

synonyms: age hardening, dispersion hardening, precipitate ageing, precipitation hardening

Any time-dependent change of the properties of a precipitate e.g. loss of water or growth of crystals as a result of prolonged heat treatment. [CHMO]

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defined in:

ageing

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002367)

synonyms: age hardening, dispersion hardening, precipitate ageing, precipitation hardening

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defined in:

aggregating data

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003581)

synonyms: data aggregation, aggregating data, collecting data

A data processing that assigns some data to a collection. [Allotrope]

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defined in:

aging

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002367)

synonyms: age hardening, dispersion hardening, precipitate ageing, precipitation hardening

Any time-dependent change of the properties of a precipitate e.g. loss of water or growth of crystals as a result of prolonged heat treatment. [CHMO]

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air cooling

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002461)

Air cooling is a type of sample cooling using gaseous air. [Allotrope]

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defined in:

air-sensitive vacuum distillation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000415)

A method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. The components in a high-boiling-point sample mixture are vaporised by the application of heat at low pressure and then cooled by the action of cold water in a condenser. The vacuum is replaced by an inert gas once the distillation is complete. [CHMO]

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defined in:

alkalimetric titration

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002378)

synonyms: alkalimetry

The process of determining the quantity of a sample (an acid) by adding measured increments of a titrant (a base) until the endpoint, at which essentially all of the sample has reacted, is reached. [CHMO]

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defined in:

alpha-particle X-ray spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001780)

synonyms: APXS, alpha X-ray spectrometry, alpha X-ray spectroscopy, alpha-X-ray emission spectrometry, alpha-X-ray emission spectroscopy, alpha-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, alpha-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, alpha-X-ray spectrometry, alpha-X-ray spectroscopy, alpha-particle X-ray emission spectrometry, alpha-particle X-ray emission spectroscopy, alpha-particle X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, alpha-particle X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, alpha-particle X-ray spectrometry

A type of X-ray emission spectroscopy where the sample is irradiated with alpha-particles and the energies of the backscattered alpha-particles and X-rays emitted due to core-to-core transitions are measured. [CHMO]

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alpha-particle scattering

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000480)

synonyms: alpha scattering, alpha-scattering

A method for determining structure by measuring the change in direction or energy of scattered alpha-particles. [CHMO]

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alpha-particle spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000952)

synonyms: alpha spectroscopy, alpha-particle spectrometry

A type of spectrometry where the alpha-particles (or 4He nuclei) spontaneously emitted from radioisotopes are detected. [CHMO]

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defined in:

alternating current force spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001007)

synonyms: AC force spectroscopy, AC-modulated force spectroscopy, ac mode force spectroscopy, ac-mode force spectroscopy, alternating-current force spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where an atomic force microscope is used to measure the force experienced by a sample. The method involves the application of a small sinusoidal oscillating force to the tip via a magnetic field created by a conducting coil which interacts with a magnetic particle glued on the backside of the cantilever and measuring the change in amplitude during the approach and retraction of the sample. [CHMO]

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defined in:

alternating current impedance spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001352)

synonyms: AC-IS, AC-impedance spectrometry, AC-impedance spectroscopy, ACIS, Ac-impedance spectrometry, Ac-impedance spectroscopy, ac-impedance spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the change in impedance (the resistance of alternating current) of a sample during excitation with an alternating-current voltage is measured. [CHMO]

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alternating current polarography

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000357)

synonyms: AC polarography, AC-polarography, alternating-current polarography

An electrochemical technique where the alternating current (ac) component of the cell current is measured as a function of time and as a function of the ac potential between the indicator and reference electrodes. The working electrode is a dropping mercury (or other liquid conductor) electrode and unstirred solutions are used. [CHMO]

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defined in:

alternating-current dielectrophoresis

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001850)

synonyms: AC dielectrophoresis, a.c. dielectrophoresis, ac dielectrophoresis, alternating current dielectrophoresis, alternating current dielectrophoretic analysis

A separation method where colloidal particles move at different speeds according to their dielectrophoretic mobilities in a separation medium, across which an alternating electric field is applied. [CHMO]

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aluminium metallisation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000013)

synonyms: Al metalization, Al metallisation, Al metallization, aluminium metallization, aluminum metalization

The deposition of a layer of aluminium on a substrate (usually to provide electrical contacts in devices). A number of techniques may be used for metallization including evaporation and sputter coating. [CHMO]

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aluminum metallization

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000013)

synonyms: Al metalization, Al metallisation, Al metallization, aluminium metallization, aluminum metalization

The deposition of a layer of aluminium on a substrate (usually to provide electrical contacts in devices). A number of techniques may be used for metallization including evaporation and sputter coating. [CHMO]

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ambient ionisation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001171)

Desorption of molecules and formation of ions outside the mass spectrometer directly from samples in their native environment with no or minimal sample preparation. [IUPAC MS REC]

sources:
  • K. K. Murray, R. K. Boyd, M. N. Eberlin, G. J. Langley, L. Li and Y. Naito, Pure Appl. Chem., 2013, 85, 1515-1609
  • R. G. Cooks, Z. Ouyang, Z. Takats, J. M. Wiseman. Science 311, 1566 (2006)

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ambient ionisation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001171)

sources:
  • K. K. Murray, R. K. Boyd, M. N. Eberlin, G. J. Langley, L. Li and Y. Naito, Pure Appl. Chem., 2013, 85, 1515-1609
  • R. G. Cooks, Z. Ouyang, Z. Takats, J. M. Wiseman. Science 311, 1566 (2006)

© IUPAC

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defined in:

ambient ionisation mass spectrometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002098)

synonyms: ambient mass spectrometry

Any mass spectrometry technique where the sample is ionized at low or ambient temperature. [CHMO]

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defined in:

ambient ionisation mass spectrometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002098)

synonyms: ambient mass spectrometry

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defined in:

ambient ionization

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001171)

Desorption of molecules and formation of ions outside the mass spectrometer directly from samples in their native environment with no or minimal sample preparation. [IUPAC MS REC]

sources:
  • K. K. Murray, R. K. Boyd, M. N. Eberlin, G. J. Langley, L. Li and Y. Naito, Pure Appl. Chem., 2013, 85, 1515-1609
  • R. G. Cooks, Z. Ouyang, Z. Takats, J. M. Wiseman. Science 311, 1566 (2006)

© IUPAC

Copyright Notice and License Terms for IUPAC terms

defined in:

ambient ionization

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001171)

Desorption of molecules and formation of ions outside the mass spectrometer directly from samples in their native environment with no or minimal sample preparation. [IUPAC]

sources:
  • K. K. Murray, R. K. Boyd, M. N. Eberlin, G. J. Langley, L. Li and Y. Naito, Pure Appl. Chem., 2013, 85, 1515-1609
  • R. G. Cooks, Z. Ouyang, Z. Takats, J. M. Wiseman. Science 311, 1566 (2006)

© IUPAC

Copyright Notice and License Terms for IUPAC terms

defined in:

ambient ionization mass spectrometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002098)

synonyms: ambient mass spectrometry

Any mass spectrometry technique where the sample is ionized at low or ambient temperature. [CHMO]

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defined in:

amperometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000733)

synonyms: amperometric method

An electrochemical technique where the cell current is measured whilst the potential difference between the indicator and reference electrodes is controlled. [CHMO]

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defined in:

amperostatic coulometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000683)

synonyms: controlled current coulometry, controlled-current coulometry

An electrochemical technique where the total Coulombs of electricity required to complete (fully oxidise or fully reduce the sample in) an electrochemical reaction is measured whilst the current is held at a constant value. [CHMO]

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defined in:

amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000139)

synonyms: AM-AFM, amplitude modulation AFM, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy, amplitude-modulation AFM

A type of microscopy which uses a sharp spike (known as a 'tip') mounted on the end of a cantilever to scan the surface of the specimen. The tip oscillates, intermittently touching or tapping the surface. An image of the surface is obtained by mechanically moving the probe in a raster scan of the specimen, line by line, and recording the force experienced by the tip as a function of position. A feedback loop is used to maintain a fixed relationship between oscillation amplitude or phase of the tip and the surface during scanning, which is performed under ultra-high vacuum conditions. [CHMO]

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defined in:

analysis assay

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003491)

synonyms: analysis, analyte assay

An assay with the objective to capture information about the presence, concentration or amount of an analyte in the evaluand. [OBI]

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defined in:

analysis assay

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003491)

synonyms: analysis, analyte assay

An assay with the objective to capture information about the presence, concentration or amount of an analyte in the evaluant. [OBI]

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defined in:

analyte calibration

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003706)

synonyms: calibration

Analyte calibration is producing a calibration curve from measurements of known amounts of analyte that will be used as measurement function for the measurement of unknown amounts of analytes. [Allotrope]

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analytical centrifugation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001278)

A separation method where components of a sample are separated on the basis of their density in a centrifuge according to the centrifugal force they experience. During centrifugation the sample can be monitored in real time through an optical detection system or using ultraviolet light absorption. [CHMO]

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defined in:

analytical pyrolysis

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000094)

The characterization, in an inert atmosphere, of a material or a chemical process by a chemical degradation reaction induced by thermal energy. [CHMO]

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defined in:

analytical solution calorimetry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001358)

The measurement of the enthalpy change during chemical reaction in order to determine quantitative values of a reactant or catalyst. In general, at least one reactant is a liquid or solution. [CHMO]

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defined in:

angle resolved mass spectrometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002509)

Technique used to investigate details of the collisional excitation process by studying trends relating scattering angle of the precursor ion, internal energy transferred, and the masses of the ion and its collision partner. [IUPAC MS REC]

sources:
  • K. K. Murray, R. K. Boyd, M. N. Eberlin, G. J. Langley, L. Li and Y. Naito, Pure Appl. Chem., 2013, 85, 1515-1609

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defined in:

angle resolved mass spectrometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002509)

Technique used to investigate details of the collisional excitation process by studying trends relating scattering angle of the precursor ion, internal energy transferred, and the masses of the ion and its collision partner. [IUPAC]

sources:
  • K. K. Murray, R. K. Boyd, M. N. Eberlin, G. J. Langley, L. Li and Y. Naito, Pure Appl. Chem., 2013, 85, 1515-1609

© IUPAC

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defined in:

angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001839)

synonyms: ARXPS, angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectrometry

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is illuminated with X-rays causing ionization and the emission of photoelectrons, which are detected as a function of emission angle. [CHMO]

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angle-resolved bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001910)

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with electrons which decay in unoccupied states emitting bremsstrahlung radiation which is detected as a function of emission angle. [CHMO]

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defined in:

angle-resolved electron-electron coincidence spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000529)

synonyms: ARE2E, angle-resolved E2E, angle-resolved electron-electron coincidence spectrometry

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with high-energy photons resulting in the emission of a pair of electrons which are detected as a function of emission angle. [CHMO]

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defined in:

angle-resolved electron-electron ion coincidence spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001224)

synonyms: AREEICO, angle-resolved electron-electron ion coincidence spectrometry

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with high-energy photons resulting in the emission of an ion and a pair of electrons which are detected as a function of emission angle. [CHMO]

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defined in:

angle-resolved ion-excited Auger electron spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000919)

synonyms: AIRES, angle-resolved ion-electron spectrometry, angle-resolved ion-electron spectroscopy

Any type of spectroscopy where ion bombardment of a sample results in the ionization of core electrons and the emission of so-called 'Auger' electrons, which are detected as a function of emission angle. [CHMO]

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defined in:

angle-resolved photoelectron extended fine structure spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002331)

synonyms: ARPEFS, ARPEFSS, ARPES spectrometry, ARPES spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoelectron extended fine structure spectrometry, angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure spectrometry, angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is illuminated with photons causing ionization and the emission of photoelectrons which are detected as a function of emission angle. The spectrum is recorded over an extended energy range, from the photon absorption edge onset to several hundred eV above it. [CHMO]

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defined in:

angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000482)

synonyms: ARP, ARPES, ARPS, angle-resolved photoelectron spectrometry, angle-resolved photoemission spectrometry, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is illuminated with photons causing ionization and the emission of photoelectrons which are detected as a function of emission angle. [CHMO]

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defined in:

angle-resolved resonant Auger electron spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000011)

synonyms: angle-resolved resonance Auger electron spectrometry, angle-resolved resonance Auger electron spectroscopy, angle-resolved resonant Auger electron spectrometry

A type of spectroscopy where bombardment of a sample with high-energy photons results in the ionization of core electrons and the emission of so-called 'Auger' electrons. The wavelength of the incident photons is scanned over an absorption edge in the sample and the Auger electrons emitted are detected as a function of emission angle. [CHMO]

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defined in:

angle-resolved resonant X-ray scattering

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001889)

synonyms: angle-resolved resonant X-ray emission spectrometry, angle-resolved resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy, angular-resolved resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy

A method for determining structure by measuring the energy loss of X-rays scattered by a sample as a function of emission angle, where the incident X-ray energy is chosen to coincide with an electronic transition in the sample. [CHMO]

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defined in:

angle-resolved secondary electron spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001215)

synonyms: ARSES, angle-resolved secondary electron spectrometry, angular resolved secondary electron spectrometry, angular resolved secondary electron spectroscopy

Any type of spectroscopy where primary electrons interact with a sample and the electrons emitted as a result of the interaction (secondary electrons) are detected as a function of emission angle. [CHMO]

© Allotrope

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defined in:

angle-resolved synchotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000172)

synonyms: angle-resolved synchotron radiation photoelectron spectrometry

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is illuminated with radiation (X-ray-ultraviolet) generated in a synchrotron causing ionization and the emission of photoelectrons which are detected as a function of emission angle. [CHMO]

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defined in:

angle-resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001971)

synonyms: UVAIUPES, UVAIUPS, UVARUPES, UVARUPS, angle-integrated ultra-violet photoelectron spectrometry, angle-integrated ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy, angle-integrated ultra-violet photoemission spectrometry, angle-integrated ultraviolet photoelectron spectrometry, angle-integrated ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, angle-integrated ultraviolet photoemission spectrometry, angle-integrated ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, angle-resolved ultra-violet photoelectron spectrometry, angle-resolved ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy, angle-resolved ultra-violet photoemission spectrometry, angle-resolved ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy, angle-resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectrometry, angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectrometry, angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is illuminated with ultraviolet (10-400 nm) photons causing ionization and the emission of photoelectrons, which are detected as a function of emission angle. [CHMO]

© Allotrope

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defined in:

angular dependent Auger electron spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001059)

synonyms: ADAS, ARAES, angle-resolved Auger electron spectrometry, angle-resolved Auger electron spectroscopy, angular dependent Auger spectrometry

A type of spectroscopy where bombardment of a sample with high-energy photons results in the ionization of core electrons and the emission of so-called 'Auger' electrons. The energies of these Auger electrons are detected as a function of emission angle. [CHMO]

© Allotrope

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defined in:

angular velocity process profile

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003752)

synonyms: angular velocity profile

An angular velocity process profile is a quality process profile of how fast an object rotates or revolves relative to another point. [Wikipedia]

© Allotrope

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defined in:

anion-exchange chromatography

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002341)

synonyms: AEX, anion chromatography, anion exchange chromatography

Column chromatography where anions are retained by positively charged functional groups in the stationary phase. [CHMO]

© Allotrope

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defined in:

anisotropic wet etching

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001382)

synonyms: wet anisotropic etching

The process of using strong acids/alkalis to remove a thin layer of the unprotected parts of a sample surface (e.g. metal or silicon) to create a pattern. Anisotropic etching occurs when different etch rates are observed in different directions in the sample (e.g. for different crystal faces). [CHMO]

© Allotrope

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defined in:

annealing

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000792)

A heat treatment that alters the microstructure of a material causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. [CHMO]

© Allotrope

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defined in:

annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002221)

synonyms: ADF-STEM

A type of microscopy where a finely focused (<10 nm diameter) electron beam with an acceleration voltage 50-150 kV is scanned across an electron-transparent specimen under vacuum. The beam of electrons is scattered or diffracted before reaching the specimen, and the image results from a weakening of the beam by its interaction with the sample. An annular aperture is used to select electrons that have passed through given symmetric zones within the objective lens of the microscope. [CHMO]

© Allotrope

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defined in:

anodic mobilization

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000354)

Anodic mobilization is a specialized form of electrophoretic separation of proteins and ampholytes based on their net charge, separation is achieved by the use of pH changes in the buffer with the addition of salt to the buffer resulting in excess nonproton cations. [Allotrope]

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anodic stripping potentiometry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000438)

synonyms: ASP

An electrochemical technique where the analyte of interest is electroplated onto the working electrode before being removed or 'stripped' by re-oxidation using either oxidants in the sample or by applying a small constant current, or a combination of both. During removal the time-dependence of the potential difference between the indicator and reference electrodes is measured under conditions where the current passed is sufficiently small to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium. [CHMO]

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anodic stripping voltammetry

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000844)

synonyms: ASV

An electrochemical technique where the analyte of interest is first electroplated onto the working electrode before being removed or 'stripped' by applying an oxidising potential. During removal the cell current is measured as a function of time and as a function of the potential between the indicator and reference electrodes. [CHMO]

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anodisation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000999)

An eletrochemical process that increases the thickness of the oxide layer on the surface of a metal sample in order to make it less reactive. Anodization proceeds by passing a direct current through an electrolytic solution, with the sample serving as the anode. [CHMO]

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anodisation

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000999)

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anodization

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000999)

An eletrochemical process that increases the thickness of the oxide layer on the surface of a metal sample in order to make it less reactive. Anodization proceeds by passing a direct current through an electrolytic solution, with the sample serving as the anode. [CHMO]

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anomalous X-ray scattering

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001625)

synonyms: AXD, AXS, X-ray anomalous dispersion, X-ray anomalous scattering, anomalous X-ray dispersion

A method for determining structure by measuring the change in phase of X-rays scattered by a sample. Normally incident X-rays continue in the same phase after encountering the scatterer. However, if the energy of the incident X-rays is at or above the absorption edge of the scatterer, a phase shift occurs. [CHMO]

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anomalous wide-angle X-ray scattering

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0000893)

synonyms: AWAXS, anomalous wide angle X-ray scattering

A method for determining structure by measuring the change in direction or energy of X-rays scattered by a sample at wide angles (>10 deg.). The wavelength of the X-rays used is scanned over an absorption edge which changes the scattering in a known way (the 'anomalous dispersion effect'). [CHMO]

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apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0001860)

synonyms: s-SNOM, S-NSOM, aNSOM, aSNOM, apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy, scattering type apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy, scattering type apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy, scattering type near-field scanning optical microscopy, scattering type scanning near-field optical microscopy

A type of microscopy where a laser spot is focused on a solid sharp metallic probe producing a confined light field very close to (<10 nm from) the surface of the specimen. An image is produced by scanning the probe over the specimen and detecting the scattering of the incident light by the probe as a function of position. A force feedback loop is used to maintain a fixed relationship between the probe and surface during scanning. [CHMO]

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appearance potential spectroscopy

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0002334)

synonyms: APS, appearance potential spectrometry

A type of spectroscopy where the sample is bombarded with an electron beam and the energy threshold for excitation is indicated by the appearance of relaxation products (Auger electrons or X-rays) or by a change in the electron beam current. [CHMO]

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approval state

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003757)

An approval state is a state where information content such as a specification is allowed or is suitable by an authority for a purpose or in a context. [Allotrope]

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approving

(http://purl.allotrope.org/ontologies/process#AFP_0003643)

synonyms: approval, approval process

Approving is agreeing to a proposition or accepting something as satisfactory towards an set objective. [Allotrope]

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